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Framework for the Integration of Women in APEC
Gender Analysis
Image of Women in Chinese Taipei
Births
Education
Employment
Marriage and Family
Economic security and welfares
Health
Personal Security
Participations in Society and Politics
Comparisons with Other Countries
References
Involvement of Women in APEC
Sex-Disaggregated Data


Women contribute to local economy significantly when dealing with non-typical jobs such as homemaking, working as nannies, hourly-paid maids, home managers and doing home factories.  However, no relevant labor welfares or protection provided for their aged lives.  Their jobs are not calculated in the labor participation rate, either.  The relevant statistics are to be made.

I: Overall

In the distribution of population, sex ratio of people aged over 60 in Taiwan is 101 in 2003.  Taiwan is the only country in the world being larger than 100 (men outnumber women), which is caused by the aging group immigrated into Taiwan from China in 1949.

The population aged over 65 makes up 9.0% of the total population in 2002.  By the end of 2002, number of elders living by themselves requiring caring listed in each city/country government is 49,111, 2.24% of total aged people.  Among which there are 29,471 men, 60.01% of total elders living by themselves or 2.82% of male elders.  That of women is 19,640, 39.99% of total elders living by themselves or 1.99% of female elders.

The average annual income of women in Taiwan is NT$385,000 in 2001, approximately 70% of that of men.

A total of 3,870,504 women are under labor insurance, which is about the same as the number of total employed women.  That of men is 4,045,285 and is 1.4 million short of the employed men.  This indicates that men are capable of affording private insurances and women with lower incomes tend to have social insurance instead.

Women outnumber men in the group of insured amount less than NT$27,600 and vice versa in the group of insured amount higher than NT$27,600.  Thus, women will have less pensions than men when they get old.

The men under labor insurance in 2002 is 50.84% with women at 49.16%.  Cases of pensions for men are 58.63% with 41.37% for women.  The pension amount for men takes 69.84% with 30.16% for women.


Sources: 1. Influences of Globalization on Women Economics and Social Life Resources, p. 115
             2. URL of Bureau of Labor Insurance
http://www.bli.gov.tw/statistic

Ratio of women expressing “disagreement” or “strong disagreement” to the statement “often given living expenses or petty cash” is 40.42% in the group of 50-64 and 50.39% in 50-54.  Women step out of the labor market due to house labor and child-raising, leading to the low employment rate which affects their economic security, but their family members do not give them proportionate return.

50.20% of women over 65 have property in 2000 while that of men is 61.66%.  Only one quarter (27.48%) of women have houses or other real estates while 45.54% of men do.  A high proportion of aged women are in economic difficulties.

Sources: 1. Investigation Report on Elders, 2000 
             2. Analysis on Current Human Rights of Women in Taiwan—Difficulties and Thoughts of Future under the Mixture of Role of Women and Globalization, p. 100


Only 24.83% of women over 65 are financially independent with sources of “work incomes,” “savings, interests and investments,” “pensions, consolation money and insurance benefits.”  It is only half of 49.74% of men.  6% of women over 65 can depend only on pensions, consolation money and insurance benefits.  8.84% depending on subsidies from the government is also far lower than 14.42% of men.  This illustrates that the main reason making old women difficult to get support from the government is the property investigation of family models of the government and the difficulty of acquiring the information.

63.00% of women over 65 have to depend on their children while 33.81% of men do.  This causes their economic inferiority and dependence.  Their average monthly living expense is NT$9,833, or 82.15% of NT$11,969 of men.  The amount of Hakka and aborigine women is NT$9,490 and 6,700 each, or 76.86% and 64.47% of NT$12,347 and 10,393 of men.

Sources:1. Investigation Report on Elders, 2000 
             2. Analysis on Current Situations of Women in Taiwan—Difficulties and Thoughts of under the Mixture of Role of Women and Globalization, p. 101


Population over 65 requiring long-term caring in 2000 is 172,000 or 9.1% of overall aged population, about 50% of overall population requiring long-term caring.  The number of women is 20% higher than that of men.

The above situations indicate that the national pension system has to be planned in the viewpoints of women to solve the problem of economic security for old women.

II、Single-Parent Families

51.8% of single-parent households have female householders in 2001.  The average monthly income of such households is NT$48,000, which is slightly lower than NT$50,000 of households with male householders.  The amount is only 71.6% of NT$67,000 of overall households.

22.1% of singe parents have educational attainment of colleges and above in 2001, 27.7% of (vocational) high schools and 50.2% under junior high school. 8.2% of them work as executives, 4.3% lower than that of overall households.  As most of unmarried children are studying, the education expenses reach 17.3%.

10.49% of single-parent households dropped below the poverty line in 1998, three times of single households, twice or three times of double-parent households.  38.85% of single mothers do not have jobs while only 18.73% of single fathers don’t.  Reasons of being jobless are handling house chores (83.11%) by women; 30.78% of men aged of long-term illnesses and 38.41% of other reasons.  It seems that medium-priced nursing facilities are necessary for single mothers to find a job.

III: Aborigines

59% of aborigine women have monthly income less than NT$10,000 in 2001, which is higher than 37% of aborigine men whose average monthly income is around NT$19,000 while women’s average monthly income is less than NT$10,000.

Sources: Monthly of Budget Accounting and Statistics, July 2003, p. 53

The rates of aborigine single-parent families and female householders are higher than those of overall families, proving the seriousness of the aborigine single mothers’ poverty.

6,853 aborigines required long-term caring in 2000.  2,261 are in serious need at 33.0% and numbers of men and women are approximately the same.

2,956 aborigines over 65 required long-term caring, or 12.3%, higher than 9.1% of overall population.  55.5% of them are women, obviously higher than 30.9% of men.  The welfare of old aborigine women has been neglected.

 

Sources: Monthly of Budget Accounting and Statistics, July 2003, p. 53

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